P1 - B3


  • Begin to develop and play with an appropriate and functional embouchure, suitable for the particular instrument:
    • gradually developing stamina

Demonstrate the correct embouchure to learners.

Without instrument:

  • Use exercises to develop awareness of the muscles that are used to form an appropriate embouchure, e.g.:
    • ask learners to say ‘eee’ and ‘ooo’, and direct a jet of air up and down one of their hands, dropping and raising the jaw
    • ask flute players to hold a finger under their bottom lip whilst forming the embouchure, so they can feel where the air goes as they exhale

With instrument:

  • Ask learners to play long notes with a steady sound on the head joint/mouthpiece/ double reed and then on the instrument.

Be aware of learners’ individual physical characteristics and make adaptations as appropriate.

Encourage learners to experiment with making different sounds on the head joint, etc. Ask them to improvise short phrases, using the sounds to portray different moods. Discuss the musical effects.

Show learners how to move between notes, maintaining a steady sound on each. Use:

  • copycat games, i.e. ask learners to copy notes or short phrases played by the teacher and/or others
  • call-and-response games, i.e. answer a short phrase with a different one

Using well-known pieces, ask learners to play simple phrases by ear and from notation, maintaining a steady sound on each note.

For reed instruments, upper and lower front second teeth are required.

Teeth should not touch the mouthpiece of the recorder.

Ensure that learners do not puff out their cheeks.

Good tone is the result of correct embouchure, good breath control and good modelling.

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